How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Because our society is so computer-driven, it should come as no surprise that your creditworthiness boils down to a single number.
All the years you've been paying your various bills: your mortgage, vehicle payments, and credit card bills can be analyzed, sliced, diced, spindled and mutilated into a single indicator of whether you're likely to meet your future obligations.
The three agencies use slightly different formulas to build a credit score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. .
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, all of the agencies use the following to calculate a score:
- Your Credit History - How long have you had credit?
- Payment History - Do you pay your bills on time?
- Credit Card Balances - How many accounts? How much do you owe?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have you had your credit checked for a loan?
These factors are weighted differently depending on the formula being used. The results are added up and distilled into a single number. FICO scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is always better. Most borrowers getting a mortgage loan these days have a score above 620.
Not just for qualifying
FICO scores are used for more than just determining whether or not you qualify for a mortgage. Higher scores indicate you are a better credit risk, and thus may qualify for a better mortgage rate.
Improving your score
What can you do to raise your FICO score? Unfortunately, not much. So called "credit repair" companies advertise quick fixes, but the FICO score is based on your lifelong credit history, so it's not possible to raise it significantly in the short term. (Of course you must appeal incorrect items on your credit report.)
Know your FICO score
Before you can improve your credit score, you must obtain your score and ensure that the credit reports from each credit reporting agency are correct. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. For a reasonable fee, you can get your FICO from all three agencies, along with your credit report. They also provide helpful information and online tools that help you improve your FICO score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report once per year from the three major agencies when you visit AnnualCreditReport.com. You won't get a free credit score from AnnualCreditReport.com, but getting one is quick and very inexpensive.
Armed with this information, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the right mortgage for you.
Want to know more about your FICO score? Give us a call at 561-373-4149.